Human papillomavirus: typing and genotyping

3d model of human papilloma virus

Modern medicine knows more than one hundred and twenty types of human papillomavirus (HPV), which are classified completely differently using different approaches. An informative table of the main types of human papillomavirus, based on the results of large-scale screening studies, has been compiled.

Consider this in more detail:



Skin elements:

Sole warts

1, 2, 4

Common warts

2, 4, 26, 27, 29, 57

Flat warts

3, 10, 28, 49

Butcher's warts


Epidermodysplastic warts

5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 19, 36

Skin lesions without warts

37, 38

Genital mucosa:

Genital warts

6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 54

Non-condylomatous lesions

6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 42, 43, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 64, 67, 68. , 69, 70


16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 54, 56, 66, 68

Damage to mucous membranes, not genitals:

Laryngeal papilloma

6, 11, 30

Neck, tongue carcinoma

2, 6, 11, 16, 18, 30

All neoplasms are divided according to oncological hazard, location and shape of skin growths.

  1. Localization of the infection: Alpha - affects the male and female genital mucosa, which manifests itself as warts. Beta - affects the epidermal surface layers, gets on the epidermal surface layers with classic warts.
  2. The genotype of the virus determines its oncogenic potential, that is, its ability to cause oncological degeneration of infected tissue. Genotyping distinguishes the following types of infection according to the risk of oncogenicity: Low risk - 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 53, 54, 55. They are unlikely to cause cancer changes, but are responsible for the appearance of growths in different parts of the body, thus creating an aestheticdiscomfort. . . Intermediary - 30, 31, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 58, 66. Belongs to the potential risk category. High rice - 16, 18, 45, 56. They integrate their genome into healthy cells and repeat with each host cell replication.
  3. Skin neoplasms. Papillomas are divided into five main categories. Simple is the most common form of growth. As it develops, a keratinized warm-colored tubercle forms. Warts localize on the skin both individually and in groups. It most often occurs on the inside and outside of the hand, the lower part of the face (lips, chin). There are also plantar growths. Flat - is dark in color and appears on the skin as small pieces. They usually appear in the upper body, less often in the genitals. Very often, during adolescence, they feel immune deficiencies that occur in the neck and arms. Spikes - warts affect the mucous membranes and are included in the oncogenic risk category. They are characterized by rapid growth. Filiform - acrochord or senile papillomas occur in middle-aged and elderly people. Such neoplasms are characterized by the presence of a foot that supports the mole. Internal moles - localized to internal organs. This category includes warts on the walls of the stomach and rectum, growths in the mouth and bladder.

The method of diagnosis, treatment and prevention depends on the type of neoplasm detected.

High risk human papilloma viruses

HPV is one of the most common viruses. The most common infection is during sexual intercourse and domestic life. For many years, the virus may remain inactive and not manifest. It can be activated by various factors, such as a weakened immune system or chronic diseases.

High-risk human papillomaviruses are particularly dangerous. This category includes:

  • Mean oncogenicity - 30, 31, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 58, 66
  • High carcinogenicity - 16, 18, 45, 56, 59, 68.

Human oncogenic papilloma viruses

The carcinogenic HPV is a serious threat, that is, viruses that can cause malignant degeneration of healthy cells. The following genotypes are at risk: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 68, 56, 58, 39, 70. They significantly increase the likelihood of developing genital, uterine, anal and urethral cancer.

Oncogenic viruses are manifested by genital warts. Their appearance is a signal for seeking medical help and removing neoplasms. The most common cancers are types 18 and 16, as one of these genotypes occurs in 2/3 of cancer patients. The presence of HPV 56 and 66 in the blood is a reason to test for tumor markers, as these viruses cause carcinoma.

Typing and genotyping of human papillomavirus

Careful and comprehensive diagnosis is required to classify viral pathogens. Typing is shown to determine the nature of the disease caused by the papillomavirus and to determine its prognosis. The purpose of infectious DNA genotyping is to identify the type of pathogen. The skin and mucous membranes, blood samples and other biopsies are examined for analysis.

There are the following main types of papilloma neoplasms:

  • Warts are rounded structures with clear borders and a size of 2-10 mm. They usually have no danger of malignant transformation and are formed on damaged skin.
  • Simple papillomas are neoplasms with a soft structure and body color. They occur in different parts of the body, most often under the armpits, on the face and on the neck.
  • Genital warts are growths with a soft texture and uneven shape. They most commonly affect the surface of the genital mucosa and are carcinogenic. They grow rapidly, damaging the DNA structure of healthy cells.
  • Bowenoid papulosis is a rash that affects the skin at high risk of developing epithelial cancer.

HPV genotyping is performed to identify features of its structure. Depending on the type and information it contains, the virus may or may not be carcinogenic. The following methods are used to determine the genotype:

  • Polymerase chain reaction method - detects the virus and determines its type. This method is based on the body's response to different viral structures. Blood, urethral swabs, and cervix are used for research.
  • Hybrid HPV DNA capture is a more modern and accurate method. Determines the types of infections and the degree of damage to body structures.

Genotyping allows the determination of the number of pathogen strains, their carcinogenicity and their hazards to humans. Writing allows you to pinpoint the type of infection: permanent or reinfection (chronic course of the disease).

Human papillomavirus 1

This infectious agent causes the development of limestone and common warts. Very often, when using this papilloma virus, deep lesions appear on the feet, causing discomfort and pain to the user. Bumps may form on the back of the hand and on the chin. In some cases, they appear on the eyelids, scalp, fingers and toes.

These types of viruses have low oncogenicity. At the same time, it cannot be completely removed from the body. Modern drugs are able to temporarily stop its action.

Human papillomavirus

Another common form of viral disease. Gets on with the heel and the usual warts. As the growths develop, they become darker and acquire a rough surface. In some cases, smaller formations form around one large wart.

Patients complain of itching, burning and pain in the affected area. HPV 4 also promotes the formation of feet and calves on the soles of the feet.

Human papillomavirus

Responsible for the development of various types of growths. Most commonly, papilloma virus 5 leads to warts or verruciform epidermodysplasia. The disease is rare and manifests itself as a large accumulation of warts. The pathological condition develops in youth and continues throughout life. According to statistics, women are more likely to be ill than men.

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EVL) is essentially a unique predisposition of the epidermis to papillomavirus infection. In this case, HPV 5 is highly carcinogenic, that is, the risk of skin degeneration turns into squamous cell carcinoma.

Typical symptoms of epidermodysplasia:

  • Small wart growths that merge into large lesions as they grow.
  • The rash appears on the face, back, neck, abdomen and even the buttocks.
  • When the skin is damaged, linear wart structures appear at the site of the wound.
  • The growths on the body and limbs are larger and denser than on the face and neck.

The person has no painful sensations, but has aesthetic discomfort. Immunotropic drugs and various drugs that inhibit wart growth are used for treatment. If necessary, the growths are removed by cryodestruction, laser cauterization or electrocoagulation.

Human papillomavirus

The sixth type of HPV is diagnosed in middle-aged and older people. The neoplasms are pink or flesh-colored and resemble cauliflower in shape. This type of papillomavirus is included in the group of infections with low oncogenicity and increases the risk of the following pathologies:

  • Genital warts (warts).
  • Laryngeal papillomatosis.
  • Non-condylomatous genital lesions.
  • Conjunctival papillomas.

In most cases, the virus does not manifest in any way. But a factor such as a weakened immune system can cause it to activate and skin changes to appear.

Treatment consists of antiviral and restorative therapy, surgical removal of the neoplasm. Special attention is paid to preventive measures: personal hygiene, balanced diet, increased immunity.

Human papillomavirus

As a result of HPV 7 infection, so-called butcher's warts or butcher's warts appear on the skin. They depict painless, light brown growths that are most often localized on the elbows and shoulders.

Human papillomavirus 11

Papilloma virus type 11 is most commonly diagnosed in women and manifests as genital warts. The pathological process involves the skin and mucous membranes. This HPV has low carcinogenicity, that is, it is not susceptible to malignant transformation.

The main symptoms of the disease are:

  • Single or multiple rash.
  • Female growths appear on the labia, cervix, clitoris, urethra.
  • In men, neoplasms appear on the penis, scrotum, fern head and body.
  • In both sexes papillomas are adjacent localizations: anus, perineum, oropharynx, bladder, perianal region.

Patients complain of itching and burning in the rash area, severe pain during urination and sexual intercourse. Excretion from the genitals is also possible.

Diagnosis is performed according to the type of pouring structure and is not difficult. It is not possible to completely destroy the virus, but there are several therapeutic methods that can suppress its action. Special medications are used for this. Cryodestruction techniques, laser therapy and other surgical techniques are used to remove skin changes.

Human papillomavirus 12

Under the influence of certain factors, HPV 12 may manifest as verruciform or wart epidermodysplasia. This pathological condition is also called Lewandowski-Lutz disease. This applies to genetic disorders.

The main symptom is the general formation of flat wart structures on the skin. In the initial stage, the growths are small and localized on the forearms, legs and arms. As the infection spreads, the number of warts increases. The neoplasms merge, occupying the entire skin surface.

Human papillomavirus 16

One of the most common papillomaviruses diagnosed in 60% of people is HPV 16 (human papillomavirus). This type of infection is oncogenic and causes the following pathologies:

  • Non-condylomatous genital lesions.
  • Genital carcinoma.
  • Neck, tongue carcinoma.

After infection, the virus is incorporated into regions of the DNA of healthy cells, thus disrupting the body's natural immune immunity. According to statistics, genotype 16 is the leading cause of cervical cancer in 42% of cases.

Human papillomavirus 18

One of the most common urogenital viral infections is papillomatosis. Type 18 of this infection is associated with diseases such as HPV 16: cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer. It has a high oncogenicity. Insertion into the human genome provokes the growth of benign growths that gradually degenerate into cancer. In 70% of cases, it is detected in women with uterine cancer.

Immediately after infection, the virus does not make itself known, but after certain factors it manifests itself. Its main symptom is papillomatous growths on the surfaces of the genitals and cervix.

Human papillomavirus 21

Another type of infection that causes epidermodysplasia verruciformis is HPV 21. At the same time, it belongs to viruses with low carcinogenicity. It most often manifests itself as anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomatosis.

Because the infection does not enter the bloodstream but only affects the skin, epidermal scratches and mucosal swabs are used for diagnosis. Complex treatment aimed at preventing skin defects and strengthening the immune system.

Human papillomavirus

To date, more than a hundred papilloma viruses are known, among which are oncogenes, that is, those that can cause malignancies in the body. HPV 31 refers to an infection of moderate carcinogenicity that leads to oncological damage due to certain factors.

31 genotypes are associated with the following diseases:

  • Neoplasia with grades 2 and 3.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.
  • Penile cancer.
  • Anal cancer.
  • Oral and laryngeal cancer.
  • Bowen's disease.
  • Keira erythroplasia.
  • Dental complications.

The infection most often occurs during unprotected sex and poses the same danger to both women and men.

Human papillomavirus

This type of HPV is most commonly diagnosed in women because it contributes to the development of the following diseases:

  • Non-condylomatous genital lesions.
  • Genital carcinoma.
  • Cervical dysplasia.
  • Cervical cancer.

Human papillomavirus 35

Infection with this HPV is dangerous due to the development of malignant processes in the body. Type 35 is diagnosed in both men and women, but only in the latter does it cause serious problems.

The infection is manifested by condylomatous lesions of the septum, external genitalia, anus and mouth (tongue root, inner part of the cheek). The infection can lead to the development of dysplasia and cervical cancer processes.

Human papillomavirus 39

This genotype poses a serious danger and threat to life because it promotes healthy tissue degeneration in malignant tissues. Women are most sensitive to HPV 39 because it causes damage to the internal genitals. The infection can cause dysplasia and cervical cancer.

The infection cannot be sustained in any way by feeding healthy tissue and increasing size.

  • External symptoms of infection are skin growths on the inner walls of the vagina, cervical mucosa, cervical region.
  • Uncommonly, warts develop on the external genitalia as well as around the urethral outlet or near the anus.
  • The neoplasms appear as single and diverse growths that externally resemble cauliflower.

Human papillomavirus 44

From an oncological point of view, HPV type 44 is not dangerous. In this case, the infection with this infection manifests as genital warts and genital warts on the cervix and other important organs.

Treatment of skin growths is performed to prevent aesthetic discomfort, that is, neoplasms are removed. All patients are also given a course of antiviral medicines and immunostimulants to suppress papillomatous infections in the body.

Human papillomavirus 45

Another member of the oncogenic papilloma virus group at high risk of degeneration is type 45. The infection is characterized by the following manifestations:

  • Genital warts.
  • Bowenoid papulose.
  • Genital warts.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.

The infection occurs during unprotected sex. A man is a carrier of a virus, although he may not know it. In women, the infection manifests as wart growths on the genitals.

Human papillomavirus 51

This type of HPV belongs to the medium oncogenic risk of anogenital infections. The infection occurs mainly during sexual intercourse and can cause the following problems:

  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.
  • Oncological lesions of the anus, vulva or vagina in women.
  • Male malignancies in the anal and penile area.
  • Genital warts.
  • A giant condominium in Buschke-Levenshtein.

To diagnose HPV, 51 patients must have a urogenital smear. It is used to perform clinical confirmation of the infection in the body, genotyping and risk assessment of malignancies.

The goal of therapy is to prevent malignant transformations and mobilize the body's antitumor immunity.

Human papillomavirus 52

According to medical statistics, HPV 52 is identified in women over the age of 35 in 70% of cases. The infection most often occurs during unprotected sex. The painful condition is associated with the following pathologies:

  • Genital warts and genital warts.
  • Colon cancer in men.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.

Human papillomavirus 53

Infection with HPV 53 is possible by contact with the mucous membranes or skin cells of an infected person. This genotype has low carcinogenicity and therefore does not pose a risk of malignant transformation.

Treatment for papillomavirus type 53 is reduced to the removal of skin growths, the use of antiviral medicines and the strengthening of immunity.

Human papillomavirus 56

One type of human papillomavirus infection is HPV 56. This type is characterized by high oncogenicity and is associated with the following pathologies:

  • Non-condylomatous genital lesions.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.
  • Genital mucosal carcinoma.

HPV 56 requires complex treatment. Therapy consists of the use of antiviral drugs, surgical removal of growths and strengthening of the immune system. Particular attention is paid to preventive measures to protect the body from infection.

Human papillomavirus 58

The viral pathogen from the medium risk category for malignancy is type 58. The infection is included in the alpha group, that is, it contributes to the appearance of the following pathologies:

  • Non-condylomatous genital lesions.
  • Anal warts on the inner surface of the anus.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.

After administration to the body, it causes small growths with a dense and soft structure. Depending on the location, they can be light pink or brown. This genotype is very common in the neck, armpits, intestines, external and internal genitals and bladder.

Human papillomavirus 59

The HPV 59 genotype refers to oncogenic viruses. Under the influence of certain factors, it can cause damage to the tissues of the cervix and uterine epithelium, provoking a precancerous condition. Infection with this pathogen occurs through unprotected anal or vaginal contact, less commonly through oral sex.

Often the infection does not last long. But the appearance of skin growths and warts indicates its activation. Genital warts form on the external genitalia and their mucous membranes. If there are growths on the cervix, it is manifested by bloody discharge and severe pain during urination and intercourse. HPV 58 can also cause changes in the surface layer of the rectal mucosa in both men and women.

Human papillomavirus 66

Very often, warts and papillomas appear on the body to be associated with infection with the type 66 papilloma virus. At the same time, skin growths have the most unsuitable localization: armpits, perianal and periorbital regions, perineum, genital mucosa. It is aesthetic discomfort and frequent neoplastic trauma that makes them seek medical attention.

The infection usually does not become active for a long time after infection. But due to certain factors it is activated. These factors include:

  • Impaired immune system protection.
  • An unbalanced diet.
  • Bad habits.
  • Frequent change of sexual partners and unprotected sex.
  • Failure to observe personal hygiene rules.
  • Frequent abortions and more.

The goal of HPV 66 therapy is to prevent skin growths and to prevent the factors that provoke the spread of the infection. Antiviral therapy and vitamins are given to increase immunity. Preventive measures include vaccination, timely treatment of any disease and a healthy lifestyle.

Human papillomavirus 67

According to studies, HPV type 67 belongs to a virus with moderate oncological degeneration. That is, infection with this genotype under certain conditions can lead to precancerous conditions.

The infection enters the mucous membranes and damaged skin. The infection manifests itself in papillomatous growths on the body.

Before starting treatment, the patient must have a PCR diagnosis, a cytological smear and a series of other tests. This will allow the genotype of papillomatosis to be confirmed and the percentage of its carcinogenicity to be assessed. Therapy consists of surgical removal of the altered tissue and a course of antiviral therapy.

Human papillomavirus 68

This type of infection develops due to the effects of a viral agent that enters the body through mucous membranes or wound surfaces. Infection most often occurs during unprotected sex and makes itself felt when the immune system is weakened.

68 The HPV genotype has low oncogenicity and is manifested by skin growths of various localizations. Strong spread of defects and their frequent injuries are dangerous.

To prevent the severe effects of HPV and the various complications that occur when the first warts or papillomas appear, a dermatologist or therapist should be consulted for their treatment and prevention.