Why do papillomas appear?

papillomas on the body, why they appear

Many people are interested in why papillomas appear. The disease is a manifestation of the papillomavirus, which affects about 50% of the world's population. Treating papillomas can be complicated and time consuming because the papilloma virus is not always treatable. Read about the causes of papillomas in the next article.

Why do papillomas appear?

The causes of the appearance of papillomas on the body can be conditionally divided into the main (main) and at the same time, which rather act as the causes of the development of visual manifestations of the disease. The cause of papillomas on the skin, which is considered to be the leading and indisputable, is the patient's infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which in medical practice is called the papilloma virus group.

Statistics show the highest prevalence of HPV among the population of our planet, claiming that 9 out of 10 people are carriers of one in 100 strains of the virus known in official medicine. In addition, each of the isolated types of viral agents has different characteristics, localization areas and the potential for complications and unpleasant consequences.

Despite its prevalence, papillomavirus has a relatively low resistance to aggressive environmental factors that determine the predominance of the overload contact pathway from carrier to healthy person. The risk of infection is particularly high with prolonged contact with bare skin suffering from a disease that is observed, for example, during a massage.

In medical practice, there are also cases when a viral agent that enters a patient's body through distributed objects is spread at home, but this cause of papillomas is significantly lower than the contact mechanism of the spread of the virus.

HPV, when in contact with the skin, mainly affects the basal layer of the epidermis for a long time in a latent state, which is characterized by an asymptomatic course of the disease. This condition is usually accompanied by an incubation period of 1 to 6 months, but can persist for years.

As factors that act as a provocative appearance of papillomas on the skin, there are simultaneous reasons:

  • temporary decrease in immunity or development of immune deficiency (HIV, AIDS);
  • presence of microtrauma, cracks, scratches, open wounds on the patient's skin surface;
  • hormonal imbalances that may be associated with pregnancy, lactation, menopause;
  • lazy sexual intercourse, oral sex with a papillomavirus carrier;
  • neuro-emotional stress, stress, physical or mental overwork;
  • bad habits, malnutrition;
  • endometriosis.

The cause of papilloma infection with the virus, its behavioral features

It is extremely difficult to guarantee your safety and protect yourself from a virus infection. Due to the large number of carriers of this parasite, it is almost impossible to completely remove it from the body, and the administration of the microorganism base often takes place even in childhood. Most of the virus is transmitted from the carrier through household contacts: the use of hygiene items (scissors, washcloths, towels, etc. ). Shake your hands. Visiting public places (gyms, saunas, toilets, baths).

Medical, salon procedures using reusable instruments. Such contacts are not always the cause of papillomas, warts in women and men. The virus may not get into the body if there are no small wounds or cracks on the skin. But even when entering the tissues, organs, the pathogen may go unnoticed, does not manifest. The hidden period lasts as long as you want until favorable conditions are created for its activation.

The main causes of papillomas, their growth on the neck, under the arms, on other parts of the body is associated with general weakening of the body, decreased immunity.

The natural defense system during illness, stress, malnutrition and lifestyle cannot produce enough antibodies that can contain the virus.

Causes the growth of active papillomas, the increase in their number can be a violation of the hormonal background, which often occurs in adolescence, when papillomas appear in the form of growths similar to cauliflower forks. Fiber formations often occur during menopause. Papilloma can be transmitted sexually. Such infections have more pronounced consequences, which often become the leading cause of serious gynecological diseases. Treatment for papillomavirus, if detected during pregnancy on the genitals, should be done to avoid infecting the baby during childbirth.

Mechanism of human papillomavirus infection

Once in the human body, HPV initially affects the basal cells of the epithelium. Microtraumas, abrasions, cracks and other skin damage contribute to the penetration of the papillomavirus into the body. For a long time, the virus may initially multiply without manifesting itself clinically (chronic transmission). If the virus multiplies in the upper layers of the skin, cell hyperplasia is observed over time, even with a chronic carrier of papillomavirus.

Because the human papillomavirus is unstable in the external environment, infection occurs through direct contact. Undoubted sexual intercourse causes infection; smoking, pregnancy, endometriosis, vitamin deficiency, immunodeficiency are predisposing factors for infection by interacting with the virus. The risk of infection increases with frequent contact with bare skin, such as massage.

Papilloma symptoms

The entry of papillomavirus into human blood is not associated with a pronounced complex of symptoms that complicates the diagnosis of the disease. The patient does not even suspect that he is not only a carrier of the virus, but can also infect bystanders. The main symptom of the infection is the direct formation of skin neoplasms on the body, which can be localized in almost any part of the human body.

How the papilloma looks on the body is clearly shown in many photos on the Internet. The growth of the skin is usually represented by an oval or dome-shaped seal or papule attached to the tissue through a thin stem or thickened base. The color characteristics of the papilloma on the skin can vary greatly - from light pink to dirty brown.

Some HPV strains have multiple manifestations that may be accompanied by fusion of individual neoplasms. The result is an epidermal structure that looks like cauliflower.

Papilloma diagnostics

Papillomas are diagnosed by a dermatologist or venereologist. Due to the large number of virus types, it has its own characteristics. An accurate diagnosis based on visual inspection is only possible in the case of classical genital warts, but it does not provide accurate information on the type of virus and its oncogenicity. Therefore, if the papillomatous nature of neoplasms is suspected, they use PCR diagnostics of viral DNA.

PCR diagnostics allow not only to confirm the presence and type of human papillomavirus in the body, but also to diagnose how many viruses are present in the body at the time of analysis. It has diagnostic value because, knowing the percentage and type of virus content, it is possible to determine the approximate time of infection and identify contacts for testing and prescribing prophylactic treatment.

PCR diagnostics also provide information on whether papillomas are chronic or the result of concomitant immunosuppression. Thanks to such data, it is possible to determine adequate therapy.

If the only treatment is papilloma removal, a biopsy is performed in parallel with the operation to perform a cytological examination. Histological examination of papilloma tissue gives more accurate results, as it examines the correct location of the cells and their layers, as well as the peculiarities of the tissue structure. This gives reliable results on the degree of changes in the body and the likelihood of malignancies, as long-term and untreated papillomas are more likely to lead to oncological diseases than early identification of high-risk HPV.

PCR diagnostics usually involve screening, and if the analysis confirms the presence of the virus, an additional study is performed.

Common types of papillomas

As mentioned above, more than 100 types of virus are known in medicine, which indicate a variety of manifestations of the disease. However, there are about 10 types of HPV that are considered to be the most common:

  • Vulgar papillomas.These are oval seals that may have a yellowish keratin surface. Vulgar papillomas on the hands are the most common localization option in adult patients, while the location of the growth knee is more common in children;
  • Plantar papillomas.The causes of papilloma on the foot are HPV types 1, 2 and 4, which are the formation of individual or multiple growths on the sole of the foot as it grows, making it difficult to walk. In addition, such structures are often confused with rubella, which complicates the identification and timely treatment of papillomas;
  • Flat papillomas.HPV types 3 and 10 are provoked and appear as several flat bumps, constant in color, with a smooth surface;
  • Filillary papilloma.This is most often the case in the elderly group of patients over 50 years of age. Localized yellow bumps or growths on eyelids, groin, armpits and neck. If the filament neoplasm is subject to injury or permanent abrasion on clothing, treatment of the inflamed papilloma should be performed as soon as possible.
  • Levandovska-Lutca papillomas.This type of skin manifestation is often referred to as wart epidermodysplasia, which manifests itself as a series of spotted warts localized on the hands and feet, which have different color characteristics;
  • Genital warts.The most dangerous symptomatic manifestation of human papillomavirus. Growths are pink or gray pointed neoplasms located on the external and internal genitals, as well as in the pubic area and tongue;
  • Juvenile papillomas.Causes HPV types 6 and 11. They affect the laryngeal region, making it difficult to breathe and making the patient's normal speech more difficult. The infection usually occurs during childbirth by transmitting the virus from the mother's vagina to the baby;
  • Local epithelial hyperplasia.A similar manifestation is the consequence of infection with HPV types 13 and 32, which is the formation of multiple papillary rashes that are prone to fusion on the red border of the tongue and lips.

Are Papillomas On The Body Dangerous?

In fact, papillomas cannot be considered completely harmless neoplasms because, if not treated in a timely manner, they can spread to healthy tissues called autoinaculation and cause multiple warts. However, it is also not the main factor why papillomas on the body are dangerous. There is also a hidden answer to the urgent question of many patients about how moles differ from papillomas. Moles, which are a simple accumulation of pigment, do not pose a risk to human health.

The main risks associated with the presence of papillomas on the body include the possibility of neoplasmic fusion, which consists of malignant degeneration of the tumor. As a result, the patient may have an oncological process or be diagnosed with a pre-cancerous condition. The likelihood of such an outcome depends on the type of HPV and the area where the papillomas are located. For example, genital warts on the surface of the cervix provoke cancer of this organ in 50% of cases.

Another danger is the high risk of mechanical damage to the papilloma, which can lead to severe bleeding, wound infection and scarring or scarring of the skin.

Based on this, the answer to the question of whether it is necessary to remove papillomas on the body, the answer should be only positive.

How to remove papillomas on the body

Removal of papillomas should be performed under the supervision of a specialist, after performing all necessary diagnostic procedures, which usually include PCR diagnosis, microscopic examination of epithelial scratches and, if necessary, histological examination of papilloma tissue. At the same time, there are several ways to get rid of papillomas on the body:

  • Cryodestruction- removal of papillomas with liquid nitrogen;
  • Electrocoagulation- destruction of neoplasm by electrical impulse;
  • Surgical excision- the most radical and traumatic method of papilloma removal;
  • Laser papilloma removal- destruction of accumulation using a laser beam.

The latter is the most traumatic, safest and painless way to remove papillomas from the body. Laser papilloma removal has gained widespread popularity due to the lack of post-procedure marks, scars and scars, as well as the fact that laser destruction does not require preparation and rehabilitation.

Laser papilloma removal takes just a few minutes. Another advantage of the manipulation is the ability of the laser beam to activate the ability of the epidermis to regenerate, which ensures rapid healing of the affected area, which usually takes no more than two weeks.

Despite the need to mechanically remove skin defects, the need to organize antiviral therapy and comprehensively strengthen the patient's immunity cannot be ignored when answering the question of how to treat papilloma once and for all.

Self-medication is bad

Do not try to diagnose and treat HPV infection yourself! First, there is the risk of drug abuse. Second, only a doctor can distinguish papilloma from malignancy. In addition, self-processing has consequences.

Today, preparations based on celandine for wart removal are on sale. Celandine juice is similar in composition to iodine. Therefore, prolonged exposure to the drug causes skin burns. At the same time, papillomas are severely injured and can lead to the development of skin cancer. Iodine with iodine is even more dangerous - it is more aggressive than celandine.

When trying to get rid of iodine papillomas, scarring of the skin can occur. Vinegar is no better in this regard. Attempts to bandage warts, papillomas with a thin silk thread often provoke only the growth of these formations.

If you suspect the development of warts or genital warts, you should definitely consult a dermatologist, urologist or gynecologist, depending on the focus of the infection. Only a specialist is able to correctly diagnose the disease and determine the necessary treatment.

Prevention of the causes of papillomas

It is important to try to avoid getting a human papillomavirus infection. You should be careful about personal hygiene when visiting public places, use protective equipment and avoid questionable sexual intercourse. However, due to the excessive probability of the pathogen entering, the main measures are taken to eliminate the cause of papilloma, which appears on the human body, in intimate places only if certain factors are identified.

It is necessary to treat diseases in a timely manner, constantly pay attention to strengthening the immune system, eat properly and lead a healthy lifestyle. If the activation of the virus cannot be avoided, it is not possible to treat this process irresponsibly, to self-medicate.

It should not be forgotten that there is a risk that this benign formation will turn into a malignant form. A specialist should find out the reasons for the growth of small papillomas that appear on the face, eyelids, nose, any part of the body.

We strengthen the immune system

Modern medicine has not yet learned to kill viruses. But it is important that the HPV carrier is not lifelong. In addition, a small amount of medicine is available in medicine to remove some viruses from the body. The use of these agents is quite compatible with immunomodulatory therapy.

The amount of virus in the body is directly related to the body's immune status - the better the immunity, the less virus. Therefore, the most promising way to reduce HPV levels in the body is to strengthen the immune system. For this purpose, a separate course of treatment is performed, after which the person begins to feel much better.

Finally, there are very effective preparations for topical use - creams, gels, sprays, which increase local immunity and reduce the concentration of the virus in the affected tissues.