In the article, we will tell you what papillomas are on the penis: what they look like, where they come from and how to get rid of them. You will learn how to check the severity of these tumors and how to reduce the risk of disease.
What do papillomas look like on the penis
Papillomas are benign skin growths caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Genital warts are also called genital warts. If the virus develops on the mucous membranes, warts form.
Types of papillomas on the penis: growths may be nozzle-shaped, rounded, filiform. Sometimes they form bunches in the form of scallops or cauliflower. There are also flat, rough papillomas. The color of neoplasms is different: flesh, pink, brown. They can be found on the scrotum, on the penis, in the area of the head. Sometimes they occur in the lumen of the urethra. The lesions are painless, soft and usually not bleeding.
Papilloma virus causes abnormal cell division. Drooping papillomas and genital warts are characterized by exophytic growth when cells "crawl" on top of each other. Flat, endophytic growth. Such papillomas are similar to exophytic in many ways, but they can invade tissues, becoming morphologically similar to carcinoma.
Pearl papules around the head, which many men mistakenly consider white papillomas.
Are Papillomas Dangerous?
The risk of papillomas in a man's penis depends on the type of virus that caused them to appear. Depending on the degree of oncogenicity, all types are divided into several groups. Penile cancer can occur against the background of papillomavirus type 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, 59. Low risk in types 6, 11, 42, 43, 44.
Papillomas can spread in the urethra and cause urinary problems. When they appear on the foreskin and under the head of the penis, they are able to cause phimosis. In some cases, the neoplasms begin to itch strongly, increasing in size and number. Papillomas on the fern of the penis can interfere with sexual intercourse. Decreased head sensitivity is possible.
From what appears
The appearance of papillomas on the penis is due to only one reason - the entry of the appropriate type of virus into the bloodstream. A person can never know about his presence if the immune system is coping.
Factors that provoke the appearance of growths:
- Physical overwork, exhaustion.
- Frequent and chronic stress.
- Bad habits.
- Hormonal disorders.
- Surgical operations.
- Long-term treatment with antibiotics.
Papillomas will appear as soon as the body's immune system is weakened. The mechanism for inducing HPV activity is the same as for herpes.
Can be broadcast
Papillomas are contagious. They are transmitted both sexually and through domestic contact. That is, you can become infected not only through unprotected sex, but also through contact with the skin.Transfer conditions:the presence of so-called entrance gates, which can be any damage to the skin or mucous membranes, and the activity of the virus in the carrier. There is a high risk of infection with oral and anal sex.
Even sex with a condom does not provide 100% protection because the entire penis is not covered. The groin area around the penis and the base behind the condom ring remain unprotected. If the partner has papillomas on the labia, contact occurs and the virus is introduced. HPV is also found in a vaginal lubricant that also gets on the skin of the base of the penis and testicles. As a result, papillomas appear in these places. When masturbating, they are easy to move on the head.
The papilloma virus can survive outside the body, so it can be infected, albeit extremely rarely, in a bath, swimming pool or sauna. The infection can be inherited if the baby comes into contact with tumors that pass through the birth canal. However, babies are most often cured in the first 2 months due to antibodies in breast milk.
The incubation period of the virus can range from 3 weeks to several years until the appearance of factors that promote papilloma growth. The infection often occurs repeatedly from different partners, as 90% of the world's population is infected with one type or another of HPV.
Which doctor to contact: at the urologist, dermatovenerologist.
Papillomas are easily recognizable in appearance, but a dermatoscope is used to distinguish them, for example, from pearl papules around the head. The doctor performs scraping of the epithelium of the genitourinary organs to determine the type of virus using the PCR method. It is also important to check the levels of the virus in your blood and to take an immunogram. If the concentration is low, no treatment is performed.
Immunogram - a blood test that allows you to assess the degree of reduction in the activity of the immune system. This is important for proper treatment. The analysis reveals the number of immune complexes and immunoglobulins, the composition of lymphocytes. The volume of these blood components can be used to determine the quality of immunity and to select drugs to activate the missing link.
Analysis is not cheap. However, your doctor should not prescribe immunostimulants without it. This group of drugs can have serious negative effects in the form of an autoimmune response - immunity, if not properly stimulated, will begin to attack its cells. Another side effect: if the body has a cancer, its growth will increase.
How to treat papillomas on the penis
Do I need treatment: this is necessary if the virus type is oncogenic, if there are frequent recurrences after removal or if there is a risk of permanent partner infection. Removal is also required in cases of urethral formation. Penile papillomatosis can only be cured aesthetically. The virus itself can only remove immunity from the body. This occurs in about half of the cases after infection.
Removal of papilloma has not yet been cured. Relapses often occur and there are more tumors on the genitals and they grow faster. In order to suppress the activity and reduce the concentration of the virus, it is important to take antiviral and immune-boosting therapy at the same time as the removal.
Many people try to remove papillomas on their own by cauterizing them with one of the following products: celandine solution, vinegar essence 70%, lapis pencil.
This cannot be done for two reasons:
- Risk of skin damage due to deep scarring.
- Introduction of infection.
Self-assessment without targeted treatment is of little use. The virus will remain in the blood, the aesthetic result will remain for a short time, and the rash will reappear. It will take a long time to heal red spots and scars.
Under the supervision of a doctor, it is possible to remove papillomas with topical cytotoxic drugs.
Viral replication is blocked by antiviral ointments. To stimulate immunity, vitamin complexes are determined for interferons and stimulants of their production, depending on the results of the immunogram.
Removal of papillomas on the penis
Clinics use the following methods to remove papillomas:
- Liquid nitrogen. Papilloma is cauterised by applying an applicator to a substance. Neoplasmic cryodestruction occurs due to extremely low temperatures. Pain relief is not required. Minus - uncontrolled spread of nitrogen around the warts, skin damage. The neoplasm does not fall off immediately, so it is not possible to assess the completeness of the removal, often the "bottom" of the papilloma remains. This method is gradually being replaced by more precise ones.
- Electrocoagulation - tissue burning with high frequency currents. This method is traumatic and disappears in the background, such as cryodestruction.
- Laser method. Modern devices allow you to control the depth of beam penetration and completely remove the neoplasm. The laser beam qualitatively removes growths, but there is a significant disadvantage - a high risk of further tissue scarring.
- Radio waves. Tissue evaporation is performed using an apparatus. This method practically eliminates the risk of scarring, so it is considered optimal for the removal of papillomas on the penis. After treatment, a soft, bloodless crust is formed, and healing is rapid. The downside is the high cost.
Only very large papillomas or large clusters are removed with a metal, plasma or argon scalpel. Sewing is required after the procedure.
Removal process.External anesthesia is sufficient for small papillomas. The doctor will apply an anesthetic cream to the affected area. The drug starts to work after 7-10 minutes. If the papillomas are large, your doctor will use injection anesthesia. The analgesic effect lasts for about an hour.
After removal, a crust forms, which passes within 2 weeks. The need for and frequency of antiseptic procedures depends on the removal technique. There is usually no need for a radio wave. Abstinence and the use of prescribed medications are important throughout the rehabilitation period.
You will need to donate blood and swabs again at the end of treatment. A positive result is found if the test shows that there is no virus in the blood. In this case, the person is not contagious. It is also recommended that a second immunogram be performed to check that all parameters are normal. If all is well, the patient is subjected to dynamic observation, that is, he performs tests at the frequency specified by the doctor. With proper treatment, the virus will disappear from the blood, and the tests will be negative for many years.
The prognosis worsens if there are lethal factors that weaken the immune system. These are systemic diseases, diabetes. Smoking and alcohol use play a negative role.
The main measures to prevent HPV infection are a monogamous relationship with a reliable partner and personal hygiene when visiting public places. Young people between the ages of 9 and 26 can receive a vaccine that only protects against oncogenic types of the virus, Gardasil -4. The degree of protection is 97%. These vaccinations are most effective at the age of 10-14 years. If the virus already exists, then vaccination is pointless. It should be noted that the drug causes blood thickening, so it is contraindicated in people with impaired coagulation and a tendency to thromboembolism.
An important remedy is to strengthen the immune system, not with medication, but with a healthy lifestyle. To help folk remedies: echinacea tincture, ginseng, bee products.
What to remember:
- To avoid partner infection and complications, penile papillomas should be removed while receiving antiviral therapy.
- Spontaneous combustion will cause scarring and exacerbation.
- Immunostimulatory therapy should only be considered according to the results of the immunogram.
- The absence of growths does not mean that there is no HPV in the body.