Papillomas: Causes and Treatment

papillomas on the shoulder

Papillomas are benign formations on the skin or mucous membranes. They occur as a result of the entry of the HPV virus into the human body and the active proliferation of epithelial tissue.

Causes of occurrence

As mentioned above, papillomas occur as a result of human HPV infection. In addition, the virus may remain latent in the body for a long time and may not cause any clinical manifestations. Today, more than 30% of the world's population is infected with HPV.

Papillomas occur when the body is exposed to provocative factors such as:

  • Decreased immunity. As the body's defenses decrease, HPV is activated and leads to growths.
  • Unprotected sexual contact (oral, vaginal, anal) with the virus carrier.
  • Bad habits. Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption not only harm overall health, but also provoke HPV activity when present in the body.
  • STDs: chlamydia, thrush, gonorrhea also contribute to the formation of papillomas on the skin and genital mucosa.
  • Long-term use of antibacterial drugs and oral contraceptives.
  • Constant stress situations, depression and emotional stress.

Transmission routes

The human papillomavirus is most commonly transmitted sexually. People who frequently change sexual partners and do not use barrier contraception are most at risk for infection.

Another form of HPV transmission is contact-household. Virus particles enter the body through damaged skin and mucous membranes, pressing the hand, visiting public saunas and baths, as well as when personal hygiene rules are violated (several people use one towel, soap, underwear).

Vertical transmission of the virus from mother to child during childbirth is also possible. Uterine infection is extremely rare.

Types and clinical manifestations

The symptoms caused by papillomas depend on their type and the individual characteristics of the patient.

Simple papillomas

It is called HPV strains 26, 27, 28, 29, 41, 63 and 77. A distinction is made between ordinary and vulgar simple papillomas.

At the onset of growth, the patient may experience slight itching and tingling in the affected area. Simple papillomas can reach 1 centimeter in size.

They most often occur in the back of the palm or in the space between the fingers.

Plantar papillomas

Such formations occur on the feet and are caused by strains 1, 2 and 4 of the human papillomavirus. Visually, they look like a cough. They can be distinguished by the fact that no natural skin pattern has formed on the surface.

Flat papilloma

They have a characteristic shape, their color corresponds to the skin tone. Flat papillomas are usually several millimeters in size and form on the skin of the chest, genitals and face.

Filillary papilloma

Another name is acrohord. Such papillomas grow on a thin stalk and have an elongated shape. HPV is caused by 2 or 7 strains. They most commonly form on the upper eyelids, neck, armpits, chest and genitals.

Peak papilloma

Externally, they resemble a rooster comb due to their characteristic shape and bright color. Warts occur only in the groin, genitals and urinary tract and are transmitted only through sexual contact.

Oncogene classification

All HPVs are divided into several classes, if possible, provoke the development of malignancies:

  • Neoncogenic group. That's the most. These human papillomaviruses cause a variety of benign lesions that do not relapse after removal.
  • Low risk group. This class includes HPV strains 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 53, 54 and 55. Such viruses most often provoke the growth of genital warts and rarely become malignant.
  • Medium risk group. It includes HPV strains 31, 33, 35, 52 and 58.
  • High risk of oncogene. In most cases, this HPV provokes the development of precancerous diseases, which, if left untreated and closely monitored, turn into malignancies. These include strains 16, 18, 36, 39, 45, 51, 56, 59 and 68.

Papilloma treatment on the body

Hardware methods

Modern hardware methods for the treatment of papillomas allow to get rid of them and prevent the development of relapse. The following methods are most commonly used:

  1. Cryodestruction is the destruction of growths by exposing them to low temperatures.
  2. Electrocoagulation - cauterization of formations with an electric current, the strength and frequency of which are chosen depending on the size, type and density of the papilloma.
  3. Laser removal. The type of effect is clear from the name. The procedure takes no more than 15 minutes and helps to get rid of unpleasant growths permanently.

Drug treatment

The curd is used celandine, castor oil, lapis pencil and special preparations.

They have different effectiveness and do not prevent the disease from returning. The main disadvantage of papillomavirus treatment is the frequent development of allergic reactions.

Prevention of papillomas

To avoid growths and infection with the human papillomavirus, you should:

  • Use barrier contraception during sexual intercourse.
  • Follow personal hygiene rules and use only separate towels, soap and a toothbrush.
  • When visiting public baths, don't forget to wear rubber shoes.

You should also normalize your daily routine, eat a balanced diet, give up bad habits and avoid stressful situations. These factors are not the cause of the disease, but they can provoke its development if the virus is already in the body.