Human papillomavirus

human papillomavirus

HPVis a group of viruses that are extremely prevalent around the world.

There are more than 100 types of HPV, at least 13 of which cause cancer (also called high-risk viruses).

HPV is mainly transmitted through sexual contact, and most people become infected with HPV shortly after they become sexually active.

Cervical cancer develops as a result of a sexually transmitted infection with a type of HPV.

Two types of HPV (16 and 18)cause 70% of all cases of cervical cancer and pre-cancerous cervical conditions.

There is also evidence that HPV is linked to anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancers.

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women living in the least developed regions, with 445, 000 new cases in 2012 (84% of all cases worldwide).

About 270, 000 women died of cervical cancer in 2012, and more than 85% of these deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries.

Vaccines againstHPV 16 and 18has been approved for use in many countries.

It's the kind of human papilloma virus: many of them don't cause terrible problems, but there are some that I want to keep away from even me.

What are the dangers of HPV and how to identify it in a timely manner

Most HPV infectionsyour namesymptoms or diseases and disappear on their own. However, persistent infection with certain types of HPV (most commonly types 16 and 18) can lead to the development of pre-cancerous pathological conditions. Without treatment, these conditions can become cervical cancer, but the process usually takes many years.

Symptoms of cervical cancerusually appear only in advanced stages of cancer and may include the following:

  • irregular, intermenstrual (between periods) or abnormal vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse;
  • back, leg or pelvic pain;
  • fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite;
  • vaginal discomfort or discharge with an unpleasant odor;
  • one swollen leg.

More severe symptoms may appear in the advanced stages.

How Does HPV Infection Cause Cervical Cancer?

Although most HPV and precancerous conditions go away on their own, all women are at risk of developing chronic HPV infection and developing pre-cancerous diseases in invasive cervical cancer.

Women with a normal immune system develop cervical cancer within 15-20 years.

Women with a weakened immune system, such as those with HIV infection, may take 5 to 10 years to develop if left untreated.

Risk factors for cervical cancer:

  • first sexual intercourse at an early age;
  • many sexual partners;
  • tobacco use;
  • suppression of immunity.

High mortality from cervical cancer in the worldcan be reducedthrough effective screening and treatment programs.

HPV tests

Cervical cancer screeningDo pre-cancer and cancer tests on women who have no symptoms and feel completely healthy.

If screening reveals pre-cancerous conditions, they can be easily treated to prevent the cancer from developing.

Screening can also detect cancer at an early stage with a high probability of cure.

Due to the fact that pre-cancerous conditions develop over many years, it is recommended that every woman between the ages of 30 and 49 be screened at least once in her life and more frequent screening is recommended.

Screening is effective in reducing cervical cancer mortality only if a significant number of women are involved.

There are currently 3 different types of screening available:

  1. ordinary Pap test (Pap) and liquid cytology (LBC);
  2. visual inspection using acetic acid;
  3. testing for high-risk HPV types.

In addition to screening:

  • Colposcopy
  • Cytological method
  • Histological examination of biopsies
  • Detection of antibodies against human papillomavirus
  • Digen test (amplification)
  • PCR (non-amplification)

But most importantly: Deciphering HPV test results canonly a doctor.Remember that everything on the Internet is for information only, not for self-diagnosis.

HPV tests are easy to perform, do not require complicated patient preparation and long waiting times. Meanwhile, the importance of early diagnosis of HPV damage can hardly be overestimated. Properly chosen therapy can significantly reduce the risk of developing cancer.

Genital warts

The human papilloma virus is very commondoes not showto yourself absolutely nothing. He can sit inside a person for years and remain silent. The main symptom that indicates its existence is the so-called appearance"Spiky kandilom". . .

These small growths can be smooth or grow together to form cauliflower-like flowers.

Themselvescandidiasis is not dangerousand does not cause much discomfort. But if you touch them inaccurately, you can tear the growth and wound in the blood for a long time.

More serious problems can be caused by candidiasis that grows inside the body: in the urethra or vagina. They cause urinary problems or make it harder to have sex.

If allowed to grow, it can even cause fertility problems by blocking the next person's exit from the womb.

At a young age, girls and boys who develop HPV can cure it themselves without even noticing it. How to? No wonder! The fact is that HPV enters the basal layer of the skin and settles there, forming papillomas. If an infected young person's immunity is strong and strong, it will eradicate the infection within six months or a year, and the candidate or wart itself will disappear. And, consequently, the threat of malignant formations.

If you are among those 60% of women on the planet thatfailedremove HPV from your body at a young age or become infected as an adult, you will have to live with this infection for life. Scientists have not yet come up with a tool that could kill HPV all the time. You can only cure its manifestations.

And, as mentioned above, HPV manifests itself in candidiasis, which can be regularly removed or used (usually by course) drugs that inhibit their growth.

HPV during pregnancy

HPV types 16 and 18 are flat warts, do not protrude above the skin surface like a spike, but have a high oncogenic potential.

If you have flat warts on your body, especially during pregnancy,showingregular examinations in the form of biopsies and colposcopies. Most often, flat warts form on the cervix and vaginal mucosa.

Pregnancy and HPV type 16 are sufficientdangerouscombination because of the risk of infection during the birth of a newborn with respiratory papillomatosis.

How HPV affects pregnancy is of interest to many girls who are carriers of the infection. Presence of infection in a woman of reproductive agevarbe an obstacle to the concept. Even if a woman succeeds in pregnancy, HPV reduces the chances of a normal pregnancy and natural childbirth.

If a woman is at high risk for oncogenic HPV, then before conception planningnecessaryconsult a gynecologist and check.

Pregnancy is allowed with normal test results. Pregnancy planning and HPV are not mutually exclusive,not worth itrefuse to give birth to an HPV.

If the infection spreads during pregnancy, it does not affect the condition of the fetus. In addition, morenot proventhat HPV affects the course of pregnancy. The virus does not cause malformations in the child, does not increase the risk of miscarriage, premature birth and other pathologies.

If the virus was latent in a woman's body during conception, it is more likely to make itself feel like a papilloma during pregnancy. In a situation where the warts were already on the body before conception, they can grow and change shape during pregnancy.

Take care of yourself, monitor your health, seek medical help in a timely manner and never treat yourself - it is full of sad consequences.

HPV and cervical cancer

According to statistics, cervical cancer (CC) is one of the leading causes of cancer of the female reproductive organs. In our country, this terrible diagnosis is made in 13 thousand women every year. And more than 6 thousand die from this disease, that is, every second.

However, the experience of many countries shows thisRShMIt is one of the cancers that can be easily detected and treated at an early stage. In addition, women who have coped with the disease give birth to healthy children.

If thirty years ago there were practically no girls with cervical cancer, today patients between the ages of 18 and 19 with such a diagnosis are not uncommon.

It is associated with an early sexual debut. In addition, to save their lives, doctors often have to remove their reproductive organs because the disease was diagnosed too late.

But HPV infection does not always cause cancer. There are viruses with a low level of oncogenic risk - they areSubtypes 6, 11, 42, 43, 44(often manifested as pointed growths - genital warts).

Subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33- there is a high risk of oncogenic, they form flat papules - warts. But it takes an average of 10 to 20 years from infection to malignant cell transformation.

The pathological process can be accelerated by:

  • smoking
  • alcohol
  • obesity
  • hormonal disorders

Sometimes a virus that has been in the body for years can wake up suddenly.

Infectious papilloma is affected by destructive changessexually transmitted:

  • cytomegalovirus
  • genital herpes
  • chlamydia
  • syphilis
  • gonorrhea
  • trichomoniasis

The first remedy for HPV infection is to vaccinate girls.

Vaccination

A special topic is the vaccination of girls and young women to protect against cervical cancer.

It has been developed and applied since 2006vaccinewhich is effective against four strains of the virus.

Vaccination has many supporters and opponents.

Many clinical trialsproventhat if the vaccine is given to girls who have not had sex and are not infected with strains 16 and 18 (this can happen if she has not had sex before), then infection with these strains is virtually ruled out after a full course of vaccination.

In the developed world, the HPV vaccine is included in the mandatory vaccination schedule. In our country, vaccination against this virus is voluntary, and the drugs themselves are not cheap.

The recommended time for vaccinating girls varies from country to country. In Canada, for example, the vaccine is expected to be given to girls under 9 years of age. In the United States, the optimal age for immunization is 11 to 12 years.

But if, for some reason, the girl did not have time to be vaccinated against the human papillomavirus, she must be vaccinated before the age of 26 after being detained.

Ideally, you should be vaccinated three times, with the second dose given at least one month later and the third 6 months after the first.Girls from the age of 9 have been vaccinated.

However, if you have already started a sex life, this is itnoreason for refusing vaccination.

Check for the virus before vaccinationnoit is necessary. There are very few contraindications to vaccination. This is an acute illness or exacerbation of a chronic illness, as well as pregnancy.

Four countries have already introduced vaccination for boys to reduce the number of carriers of the virus.